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ETE and Emergency Planning


Evacuation Modeling

KLD uses an enhanced suite of evacuation models for its work in emergency preparedness and evacuation, which is generally done for government agencies and utilities/licensees.

This suite has its roots in the model KLD originally developed for FEMA and includes

  • An integrated traffic assignment and distribution model
  • A macroscopic traffic simulation model designed for evacuation environments
  • An interactive data entry software system
  • Evacuation animation software which shows congested paths during evacuation.

The suite has been interfaced with other models.

Our areas of expertise include, as shown by selected projects:

Emergency Preparedness

  • HAZMAT and terrorist incidents in the Washington D.C. Metro Area
  • Hurricane evacuation of the Shirley-Mastic Peninsula, Town of Brookhaven, N.Y.
  • Evacuation of the New Hampshire Motor Speedway
  • Evacuation for a major pharmaceutical research building
  • Evacuation plans for three chemical stockpile sites in the United States as part of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
  • Staged evacuation studies

Track Record

  • KLD representatives participated as ETE subject matter experts on the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) taskforce reviewing proposed NRC Emergency Preparedness rulemaking and guidance
  • KLD has extensive knowledge of federal regulations and guidance relative to evacuation and emergency preparedness
  • KLD provided expert testimony on ETE before the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB) in support of the Shoreham and Seabrook license applications
  • KLD coordinates with the industry to meet pressing deadlines of COLA, ESP and other projects
  • KLD is available to clients 24/7, given the nature of the work

KLD is now scheduling Fleet-wide ETE Studies for 2011.

Evacuation Time Estimates (ETE) in Support of New Reactor COL and ESP Applications

KLD has performed ETE studies in support of Combined Operating License (COL) and Early Site Permit (ESP) new plant applications.

In fact, KLD has performed the ETE studies for 15 of the 18 COL/ESP applications currently on file with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant South Texas Project North Anna
Grand Gulf Calvert Cliffs Virgil C. Summer
Shearon Harris Nine Mile Point Fermi
Bellefonte Nuclear Station Turkey Point River Bend Station
Levy County Comanche Peak William States Lee III


Evacuation Time Estimates for Operating Plants

KLD has performed ETE studies for 40 percent (42 of 104) of the operating units in the USA over the last 30 years.

KLD has also performed ETE studies internationally, including six sites in Japan, two sites in Canada and one site in Taiwan.

Related Services

  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
    • Production quality maps
    • Geo-database creation (i.e., inventory of special facilities within an area)
  • Traffic engineering in addition to impact and mitigation
  • Development of traffic management plans
  • Determining placement of evacuation route signage
  • Development of evacuation bus routes for transit-dependent population
  • ETE sensitivity studies for large-scale special events (e.g., sporting events, college graduations, state fairs)
  • Travel time studies for minimum critical staffing at nuclear plants

Traffic Impact and Mitigation

Construction of new nuclear plants and outages at existing plants involve significant increases in traffic at the site. A Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) should be undertaken to ensure efficient traffic flow during these events.

Coordination of TIA and ETE studies is key.  KLD has performed TIA studies in coordination with ETE studies at the following COLA sites:

  • Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant
  • Calvert Cliffs
  • Nine Mile Point
  • PSEG Site




 Project Profiles

Project Title: Backup Alert and Notification Systems for Xcel Energy

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Project Title: Emergency Response and Evacuation in Washington, D.C., for the District Department of Transportation

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Project Title: Indian Point Energy Center: ETE

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